Shell Collection

This photograph shows just a few of many specimens from Worcester City Museum’s shell collection. The shell collection as a whole comprises of some 15,000 examples of land, sea and freshwater shells, including some exotic examples from the Indian Ocean. Combined with other local specimens from Worcestershire, this forms one of the largest such collections in a regional museum.

Many people over the years have helped to make it the rich collection it is, one of which was Sir George Whitmore K.C.B., who presented his collection to the museum. Whitmore’s donation forms the largest part of the shell collection, and his name can be seen on one of the presentation boards at the top of the photo. Robert Gale of Malvern also contributed specimens that he collected on his voyages in the Southern Hemisphere in the 1840s and 1850s.

As can be seen in the photograph, the collection that exists today is mounted onto boards, with information about the name, provenance and collector written beside each specimen. This work was predominantly carried out by Mr George Reece, Museum Curator in the latter part of the 19th century. In more recent years Mr Adrian Norris, a Conchologist from Leeds Museum, painstakingly curated the collection, ensuring that the modern Latin names of each specimen were up to date. The mottled brown oval shell seen in the photograph, Cypraea Arabica, is more commonly known as an Arabian Cowry, a species of sea snail. It is widely found in shallow waters throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and is mainly active during the night.

The Natural History Collections are very important in the history of the City Art Gallery & Museum as their origins go back to the Museum of the Worcestershire Natural History Society in the 1830s and were the foundations of the museum collections we have today.

Today, the local material in the collection is valuable as it can be compared with biological records produced by the Worcestershire Biological Centre at the Worcestershire Wildlife Trust.

Hawking Merlin and Vervel

Merlins are the UK’s smallest bird of prey, small enough to hover in the breeze, and very speedy. Historically they were used by noblewomen to hunt skylarks for sport. A lark could then be kept in captivity to admire its song.

This female merlin is in Worcester City’s collection, and is a taxidermy mount from the 1970s. Museum taxidermy specimens like this enable us to appreciate up close quite how small and delicate this now red-list endangered species is.

In the Worcestershire County collection is a complete C17th silver hawking vervel, found in 2014 and acquired by the museum through the Treasure process. Vervels were used to attach a hawk’s leather jesses to a leash, which, held in the hand, enabled the bird to be trained in short distance flight. The leash could also be used to fix the bird to its block or perch. Vervels were usually inscribed or otherwise decorated to allow for the bird to be identified with its owner.

This vervel is a D- ring shape, comprising a flat silver ring inscribed with E. EYTON OF and with a shield soldered to the front. The design on the front of the shield is of a fret: knot, saltire within lozenge. Clive Cheesman (Richmond Herald, College of Arms) commented when it was evaluated as treasure: This coat of arms (Or a Fret Azure – i.e. a gold/yellow shield with a blue fret) is the arms of the Eyton family of Eyton-on-the-Wealdmoors in Shropshire (as opposed to Eyton on Severn in the same county, and several other places called Eyton in the Welsh borders). “E. Eyton” is hard to identify: I suspect it is an as yet unidentified member of the Shropshire family.

Vervels were used to attach a hawk’s leather jesses to a leash, which, held in the hand, enabled the bird to be trained in short distance flight. The leash could also be used to fix the bird to its block or perch. The Eyton family were Royalists from Shropshire in the Civil War.

A Prehistoric Puzzle

This impressive set of bison horns from Worcester City’s collection has been painstakingly put back together by an expert conservator.

Its history is just as fascinating: in the early 1830s a young natural historian Hugh Strickland was attempting to make sense of the confusing geology that made up the Vale of Evesham. Men working in the quarries that scattered the landscape would bring him any unusual bones that they came across.

This set of horns was found in Bricklehampton, near Cropthorne. Strickland thought it was an aurochs- a type of extinct giant wild cattle. Upon writing to Richard Owen, founder of the Natural History Museum and the man who coined the term ‘dinosaur’, Owen identified it as a steppe bison, a close relative of the aurochs.

For hundreds of thousands of years — right up until the end of the last Ice Age 12,000 years ago — bison, along with mammoths, lions and all sorts of other exotic and extinct animals, would have been a common sight in Worcestershire.

Claire Cheshire, Collections Assistant

during conservation

Mysterious Gull

The large albatross on display at Worcester City Art Gallery and Museum has arguably become one of the museum’s most iconic and well-loved specimens of the collection. Since its arrival in 1902, generations of visitors to Worcester have admired this wonderful piece of taxidermy.

This Wandering Albatross (Diomedea exulans), better known as ‘Albert’ to museum staff and regular visitors, has a wingspan of eight and a half feet and was presented to the Worcester City museum collection in 1902 by Mr Percy Pryce Brown.

After years of research it was discovered that Mr Brown was a refrigerator engineer aboard the RMS Waimate, launched in 1901. The ship owned by the New Zealand Shipping Company made journeys between England and New Zealand as a cargo and passenger vessel, with refrigerator space for 90,000 carcasses.

Although lamb was the more usual cargo on the vessel, the Waimate arrived in England on the 24th February 1902 with the unusual shipment of a large preserved albatross.

The great mystery surrounding Albert has always been how he ended up in Worcester. Further research surrounding Percy Brown’s origins have unearthed that this Herefordshire-born man was related to the Brock family who worked at the Royal Worcester Porcelain factory, which would explain its donation to Worcester City museum in 1902. The museum curator and taxidermist Mr W. Edwards preserved the bird and a custom showcase was made by local carpenter W. W. Hunt of South Quay, and Albert remains on display over 100 years later.

Garston Phillips
Collections Ambassador

British Butterflies

One of the most beautiful parts of the Natural History collection at Worcester City Art Gallery & Museum is the rare assemblage of Lepidopterans – butterflies and moths. These fragile wonders are housed in an environmentally controlled area in the Museum basement. Arranged neatly in rows within purpose built drawers, the butterflies are housed within an original mahogany collections cabinet.

During the late Victorian and Edwardian periods, butterfly collection was a popular hobby, particularly amongst the wealthy. Specimens were frequently traded between enthusiastic Lepidopterists, and natural history suppliers made good money providing butterflies and other insects to obsessed collectors. Catalogues provided examples of specimens available for purchase, with prices included.

Worcester’s own collection was enhanced in the 1970s when the museum became the custodian of cabinets from the Malvern Field Club. Most of the specimens within the collection also include paper labels which provide a provenance and date, as well as other priceless information. The collection is consequently invaluable to modern research groups such as the Worcestershire Wildlife Trust and local clubs.

The drawer pictured represents the entirety of British species of butterfly at the time of collection – many of the species here are now extinct or extremely rare. The largest butterfly seen here is a Monarch, or Milkweed, a genuine rarity from North America. This specimen was discovered in Malvern in 1968. The Black-Veined White is seen here at the top of the third column from the left. It became extinct in the British Isles around 1925, having previously been common throughout the South, with a particular stronghold in Gloucestershire.

Due to its fragile nature and the risk of light damage, the butterfly collection is not usually on public view but can occasionally be seen as part of a talk or workshop.

Minerals of the English Midlands

Specimens from the Worcester City Museum Collection are figured in a new book – Minerals of the English Midlands by Roy Starkey. Museums Worcestershire asks all collections researchers to share an outline of their research on this website, in our spirit of open research.

The mineral wealth of the English Midlands has been exploited for centuries – lead, copper, zinc, and to a lesser extent silver, have all been worked. Deposits of coal, iron ore and limestone powered the Industrial Revolution, providing the raw materials for such visionaries as Sir Richard Arkwright, Matthew Boulton, James Watt, William Murdoch and Josiah Wedgwood.

Halite, Stoke Prior, Worcestershire. WOSMG 1987-128.G1559 100 x 65 x 30 mm

In Worcestershire, the extraction of salt from brine has been of considerable historical importance at Droitwich and Stoke Prior, and the book features a fascinating account of the local salt industry with many archive images.

A lecture, delivered by Dr Charles Hastings, to the Worcestershire Natural History Society, and later published in The Analyst, provides an account of the history of discovery and early geological understanding of the Worcestershire salt deposits, and working of brine.

Hastings, a local medical practitioner and keen amateur naturalist, was the founder of the British Medical Association. He also established the Museum of the Worcester Natural History Society in 1833, the fore-runner of the present City Museum. Of particular interest is Hastings’ assertion that rock salt was mined at Stoke Prior, and this led the author, Roy Starkey, to examine the collections in Worcester Museum. Three convincing specimens recorded as being from the Worcestershire halite deposits were identified in the collection.

Halite, Stoke Prior, Worcestershire. WOSMG 1987-128.G1554b 50 x 50 x 25 mm

The Midlands has produced a wide range of interesting mineral specimens. Examples of these are to be found in local and regional museum collections, and especially at the Natural History Museum in London. However, such was the importance of Britain in the development of mineralogy as a science that specimens from the English Midlands are to be seen in collections all over the world. Minerals such as phosgenite, matlockite and mottramite are recognised as having been first described from the English Midlands. The hard rock quarrying industry of Leicestershire means that fresh exposures are constantly being created, and new mineralogical discoveries continue to be made today.

Halite, Stoke Prior, Worcestershire. WOSMG 1987-128.G1554a 60 x 40 x 18 mm

Roy Starkey can be contacted here, where you can also purchase a copy of his book.

Giant wombats

Museums Worcestershire not only cares for the remains of giant Ice Age animals from our county but also those from around the world.

One of the earliest additions to Worcester City’s natural history collections is recorded in June 1848; a number of fossils mostly jawbones with teeth from Australia brought over by Mr Hughes. Henry Hughes with his associates, the Isaac brothers, travelled from their native Worcester to Sydney around 1839 and then on to the grasslands of Darling Downs in Queensland where they became some of the very first ‘squatters’ in that area during a tumultuous period in Australia’s history.

The fossilised Australian bones in the Worcester collection were analysed and identified by Richard Owen. Owen was at the forefront of the study of natural science in the nineteenth century and he is best known for both coining the term ‘Dinosaur’ and as the founder of London’s Natural History Museum.

In 1838 Owen drew and published one of these fossils as the first example of its type; part of the jaw and teeth of the Diptrodon, the Giant Australian Wombat. The Diptrodon was the first fossil mammal to be identified from Australia and to have one of these original specimens in Worcester is very exciting.

The giant wombat was the largest marsupial that ever lived, weighing 2800 kilograms and growing to just under four metres in length and 1.7 metres to the shoulder. Until its extinction 25,000 years ago, it roamed the Ice Age woodland and scrublands and later, as the climate dried, the grasslands of Darling Downs.

How to look after a Moose

Worcestershire’s changing Ice Age landscape, at times marshy, briny grasslands, sometimes covered in permafrost, and other times covered in flowering plants was maintained by herds of large animals, such as Mammoth and Aurochs – the solitary Moose appeared nearer the end of the Ice Age, with the arrival of the great forests.

This example of the North American Moose, also known by its scientific name alces alces, is still found in North America, Russia, Scandinavia and the Baltic today, but disappeared from Britain towards the end of the Bronze Age around 3,000 years ago.

Whilst the Moose was not widely hunted during the Ice Age in Britain, the existence of this later specimen is evidence of man’s devastating effect upon the Moose population in more recent years. Many such specimens were swapped between collectors and institutions in the early days of natural history research.

Preparing the Moose head in Worcester City’s museum collection for display involved brushing, shampooing and polishing. A domestic carpet cleaner was massaged into the hair and removed with cloths, dislodging years of dust and detritus. An alcohol solution was then applied and patted off, to ensure that no residues were left behind. The glass eyes were cleaned, small areas of skin were re-painted, and the antlers buffed.

Cotham Marble

Worcester City Museum has a large geological collection of about 12,000 fossils, rocks and minerals. It was mainly assembled by local people during the nineteenth century. It contains a good range of local specimens but also has a selection of British rocks and world-wide minerals. It is only possible to display a fraction of this remarkable collection but using photographs gives an opportunity to introduce you to some of the ‘hidden treasures’ in the basement. They all have a story to tell and hold exciting clues to the Earth’s amazing geological past.

This is a photograph of one of the museum’s spectacular specimens of the famous Late Triassic (Rhaetian) limestone, known as Cotham or Landscape Marble. It was first described from the Cotham area in 1754 and was particularly popular as an indoor ornamental rock in Victorian times. When polished, the surfaces gave the appearance of a landscape with ploughed fields, trees, hedges and rounded cloud-like forms above. A small cottage industry developed for a short period when sketches of a village were added. It was also used undressed for outside walls and ornamental rockeries.

Cotham Marble is a limestone, rather than a true marble and was formed around 200 million years ago when the sea gently invaded the flat Triassic landscape. It occurs as lenses within the upper part of the Cotham Formation of the Penarth Group. The lenses are typically between 3 and 20 cm thick and are up to 3 m across. The limestone consists of irregular ‘bun-shaped’ mounds of banded muddy limestone. It was not until 1961 that it was shown to be produced by the growth of algae and worm-like organisms on ancient mudflats. Today similar structures have been found in modern high saline bays such as Shark Bay, Western Australia.

Rosemary Roden, Honorary Geology Curator
Museums Worcestershire